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“People need to be frozen so that they do not die,” says transhumanist Valeria Udalova, CEO of the Russian cryo company KryoRus.People have strived for immortality since the beginning of time and today, with the help of new biotechnologies, some of them choose be frozen hoping that in the future they will be revived. The technology of body conservation is called cryonics. It is a typical transhumanist dream to get cryopreserved and then, in a couple of centuries, resurrected to start a new life in that future society. How is this future world supposed to be functioning, and is there a place for blockchains there? Let’s find out.
KrioRus is now on the third stage of ICO – cryonics and blockchains may have some common ground. More than 3 million of CRYO tokens have already been sold, and KrioRus is planning to build a brand new cryocenter and to study various new techniques of freezing and reviving using these collected funds. But let’s not go into details of this particular project and look at the industry as a whole at first. What exactly is cryonics?
Cryonics aim to provide people with a long life or immortality by freezing them and preserving their bodies (or their brains). It is adjacent to cyborgization, life extensions, biohacking and the cyberpunk movement. Depending on the background of the transhumanist, these ideas may mutate into more or less radical forms, ranging from cultivation of artificial organs to uploading the brain into the Internet or deep freezing people for long space voyages like in the movie “Passengers”. More information about the actual freezing, labs and all the science behind it you can find in this guide by Healthy Way.
Several famous members of the crypto community have previously been frozen. Among them was cryptopioneer Hal Finney who was one of the first programmers to work on the Bitcoin source code and received the first transaction of 10 coins from Satoshi Nakamoto. He struggled with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and died from it. Right after his death, in 2014, he was cryopreserved by the American company Alcor.
Cryo and Crypto Society
It’s no secret that both the blockchain enthusiasts and transhumanists are futurists – both groups speculate about the future of society and dream of a better world. In fact, transhumanists almost invented a cryptocurrency once. But we will talk about that in a minute.
Transhumanists who believe in cryonics and immortality and the blockchain enthusiasts do look in the same direction. Both movements, obviously, consider technological developments and economic freedoms to be crucial for society. Ideology, which combines transhumanism and technological digital economy is called extropianism. According to extropians, only the development of science and technology will make it possible to prolong life significantly. Extropianism is a theory that combines transhumanist ideas with a practical approach.
“Human life can become eternal, like a binary code on a blockchain.” – KrioRus
Extropianism intersects a lot with the ideas of the cypherpunks who believed that encryption technologies should not be regulated by the state. A new form of digital money, “cryp”, was ostensibly discussed by the extropians in 1992. It was meant to be an electronic payment that guarantees the transaction and allows users to remain anonymous. It was not a cryptocurrency yet, but it was close. The extropians and blockchain enthusiasts are inherently united by this libertarian and even anarchist ideological basis, aspiration for freedom and privacy.
Uploading Yourself to Blockchain
Virtual reality can someday become our new home – or the home for our computer copies. The main obstacle that prevents us from uploading our brains to the Internet is the insufficient capacity of computers.
When a personality is loaded into a computer (this might be useful to revive of cryopatients), a distributed and secure storage of data, as well as confirmation of their identity will be absolutely necessary.
“Life extension technologies are very much connected with IT and blockchain. I will give an example: there is a concept that it is possible to develop equipment that will not destructively scan the brain and make its 3D model. Roughly speaking, the brain can be digitized. The Blue Brain project launched by IBM and the Swiss Federal Technical Institute of Lausanne is already researching this. It turns out that people can be digitized, uploaded to a computer and preserved – for example, on a blockchain.” – Valeria Udalova
Perhaps, someday our entire civilization can be fully digitized and will function on blockchains, similar to Netflix series “Altered Carbon”.
Storing DNA on a Blockchain: Security and Immortality
The deciphering of the DNA is considered to be one of the most important recent events in science. And today it is possible to combine DNA with blockchain. As blockchain data can not be destroyed or altered, a DNA can be stored there forever.
But why store DNA in the first place? The answer is simple – to be able to recreate (clone or revive) this person in the future. This can facilitate the resurrection of cryopatients immensely as the DNA can provide the information needed to recreate someone’s body and mind. DNA storage ideas inspire digital immortality advocates to create blockchain technologies that allow to preserve identity and personal information in a secure way. Perhaps in a few centuries there will be technologies that will restore your body and mind based on genetic data safely kept in a blockchain database. What a time to be alive!
Blockchains can provide greater security of medical data. DNA databases already exist and are used, in general, to study diseases. In the meantime, medical data is constantly stolen: according to IBM Security research only in the United States, the cost of medical data theft damage is almost $6.2 billion per year.
Ildar Fazulyanov, CEO of WELL (blockchain marketplace for telemedicine services), said to Russian media Forklog:
“The leakage of DNA or medical history of a patient has more serious consequences than it may seem. For example, according to DNA, one can judge about the pedigree, illnesses or even predict how many years a person will live. This is the largest data warehouse, and it is still very vulnerable. The use of the blockchain allows to solve the problem of protecting this information from unauthorized access or use.”
So, the use of blockchain in genetics has two sides – realistic and romantic. lt can help protect the security of DNA data now, in this day and age. Such opportunities already exist (the company Encrypgen offers “blockchain security for protecting, sharing and re-marketing genomic data”). At the same time, blockchains can preserve this information for a long time, so that the transhumanist dream of a digital genetic resurrection could possibly come true.
KrioRus and ICO
In addition to common semi-utopian plans and aspirations, cryonics and blockchain have a practical common ground: high-tech projects often seek funds through ICO. A fairly successful ICO is carried out by the already mentioned Russian company KrioRus, and their project is called CryoGen. The project is carried out jointly with the NeuroDAO Foundation, which promotes research and applied projects of neurobiotechnics.
“Cryonics is very much underinvested. Millions of dollars are required for technical equipment and regional development of Russian cryonics. But this does not mean that we can not work without it. The Singapore fund NeuroDao suggested that we make a fashionable ICO for cryonics, we decided to try it. This is an outlet for a more progressive and risky audience than traditional venture capitalists. Our project CryoGen is focused on international expansion. “ – Danila Medvedev, the founder of the Russian transhumanist movement, chairman of the board of directors of KrioRus
As of March 2018 ICO has moved to the second stage and has already sold more than 3 million tokens. KrioRus plans to build a cryocenter in Switzerland (now their center is located near 15th-century monastery town of Sergiyev Posad on the outskirts of Moscow). They also plan to conduct research on reversible organ freezing and space anabiosis.
For biotech projects, raising funds is an extremely relevant issue, since they are complex and costly enterprises. Alcor had previously publicly stated that it was lacking funds and even suggested to cancel certain memberships, increase duties, reduce quality of cryopreservations for underfunded members and so on. Meanwhile, grants can be inflexible and permit spending money on one narrow scientific field. In comparison to that, ICO seems to be a better solution for cryo companies to raise money for functioning, research and new projects.
Does cryonics work at all?
Perhaps the main similarity between cryonics and ICO is its scam tendencies? Well, this claim is not entirely false.
There is still no consensus in the scientific community whether freezing people or their brains really can ensure future revival. The issue of defrosting remains controversial. William Jarvis, the president of the US National Council on Fighting Health Fraud, said: “Cryonics may be an appropriate object for scientific research, but advertising unproven methods and trading it is quackery.” Some scientists consider cryonics to be charlatanism, and one can not blame them for the claims. Despite many experiments on animals, no one has been successfully defrozen and completely resurrected. Even Kriorus officially recognizes that it is not clear who will be responsible for the revival of the patient in the distant future.
Why, if this is such a controversial field, do people invest money in it? Why are scientists still actively studying anabiosis? According to mortician and videoblogger Caitlin Doughty, the main reason for the popularity of cryonics is “death denial,” not the reliability of this procedure. Kriorus states this in a more subtle way: “If cryonics does not work, you would in any case be dead; if it works, it can save your life.”
Anders Sandberg, of Oxford University’s Future of Humanity Institute gives the freezing, thawing and reanimation process “maybe a 5% chance” of working.
“The funny thing about cryonics is that they’re selling immortality, but very few people buy it,” he adds. Is this because people don’t actually want to live forever, or because people think it’s nonsense? I think it’s partially the nonsense part”.
Not to be confused:
Transhumanism is associated with the concepts of immortalism and cryonics. However, they have to be distinguished. Transhumanism is the desire to overcome the limits of human capabilities and solve the problems of humanity, and death is only one of these problems that immortalism specifically deals with. Cryonics is one of the tools of transhumanists and immortalists, along with prosthetics, organ cultivation etc.
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|Professor Sachs thank you so much for doing this AMA. I've always argued that if agricultural subsidies were cut around the world it would be more effective in lifting people from poverty than all aid combined. It seems that lately developing countries have also gotten into the ag subsidy trap. Is it possible we've reached a point where reducing global ag subsidies might hurt the poor more than it helps them?||There is a lot of use of open source, and a lot more on its way. Free apps. IT-based service delivery. Some really great stuff. I think the classrooms will also be transformed through online curricula.|
|Hello Dr. Sachs, I was wondering if you could respond briefly to a few questions I have had for awhile. I was in the military and deployed overseas when I read the Shock Doctrine and could verify everything that she claimed when I was in the Middle East. I have since been discharged and I pursued an Economics degree during which I took an Economic Development course. In the course, we reviewed your new and refined writings/theories and I had also wished to ask you these questions: 1) What is your retort to what Naomi Klein so succinctly documented about Free Market reforms and the subsequent repression to maintain them the world over. “The idea is to get the guys heart beating again. And it’s a bloody mess. But you don’t have any choice.” Do you still hold to this rational? 2) In your revamped understanding, you state that it is immoral to experiment because you would be withholding funds from a given population, but how do you reconcile this as an academic who is trying to solve poverty without the faintest idea of what works because of a lack of data? Secondly, do you not see that the big push is a logical fallacy if the only reason as to why it could fail is from there not being enough?||Thanks for asking. I don't think that Naomi Klein understood my own work and ideas (which by the way are all on the record). She lumped me, for some reason, with extreme free-market economists, which I am obviously not. I've been concerned with social justice from the very start of my work, and therefore argued for debt cancellation and social spending in Bolivia, for example. She overlooked all of those complexities, to make her story line go smoother. I certainly agree with much of what she wrote in general, but she did not depict my own ideas and approaches accurately.|
|Do you believe that, if our basic instinct as humans is to adapt and survive, then the most logical course of action to tackle the 'big issues' we face is to harness the power of greed within an acquisitive framework of business? I.e. the Triple Bottom Line approach, using models to create multiple value effects yet based on the inherent need to further one's position to create security and success. In short, can or must greed be good?||I think that starting with "human nature" is right (as did Aristotle, by the way). But we are more than greed. We are a mix of greed, compassion, honesty, cheating, and much more. Humanity in all its complexity. Therefore, greed (markets) are one motivator, but so too is morality a crucial key to success.|
|I read 'The End of Poverty' and I have to say, I am a huge fan of that book. I often cite your work to support ideas like that sweat-shops aren't necessarily the evil they're portrayed to be. Since the book, how much, in you eyes, has changed in the world? Do you feel like leaders sat up and took notice? Also, from your perspective, what is going well or not so well with the US economy?||The most important thing that's happened since 2005 is that the idea of ending extreme poverty has actually begun to take hold. People see the success of China in ending poverty, the start of real poverty reduction in Africa, and the power of the new ICT technologies. Because of this optimism, the World Bank Development Committee voted in April to take on the goal of ending extreme poverty globally by 2030. So the idea is there, step by step.|
|ending extreme poverty globally by 2030. So the idea is there, step by step. O.o rly? sounds like a dream to me. I live in Uruguay and with the corrupt government we have i doubt we could make such a thing. I'm seriously thinking in move to another country.||I thought that Uruguay was doing better in governance. You don't think so?|
|Hi Professor Sachs- I just wanted to say that I've read some of your work and I really admire it. I was wondering how you would respond to some of William Easterly's arguments, such as that made in "Democracy and Good Government", where he claims that there is an inherent contradiction in giving money to sitting governments (which is in and of itself a political act) and expecting them to reform. Also, it seems in a lot of your work that you believe that governments will work in the interest of their people, rather than for themselves. What is it that has drawn you to that conclusion so firmly? What do you believe will happen to the villages of the Millennium Village projects once the project term ends? To what extent are measures being made to equip government officials with the skills they may need to govern?||I believe that aid can be designed in ways that promote accountability and transparency. This is how the Global Fund has worked most of the time. It's been a good and successful model. Yes, we should promote a high degree of transparency. Remember that much of the corruption starts from the side of the rich countries and their companies.|
|Hello from Western Australia. Thanks for offering this online course! Practical questions: (hope I did not just overlook pertinent info on main page). a) a course book is mentioned - what book is that? Is it referring to the 'free, online text'? b) Will the times of the various video hang-outs be at various times of the day - to cater to the from around the world crowd? c) Will the weekly video links remain active for the rest of the course, once they are up? Thanks.||All the details will be available once the course Link to www.coursera.org goes live on January 21. a) Yes, the course book will be a free, online text on sustainable development to accompany the class b) Exactly – the times of the video hangouts will vary in order to accommodate as many time zones as possible, and the specific times will be posted ahead of time. They will be conducted in English, Spanish, French, Hindi, and Chinese. c) Yes, the links will remain active for the rest of the course once they are posted. Please do tune in to the class, more information will be up once it is live next Tuesday!|
|If automation moves to the point where sweat shops are no longer needed for the labor intensive goods produced in developing countries, do the people of developing countries have a real alternative to becoming serfs?||The question of how automation, robotics will affect development is crucial and UNSOLVED. I will discuss it in class. There is as yet too little thinking about this.|
|Dr Sachs, there's a growing movement in international development to study impact empirically, and a good amount of the evidence coming back so far has shown ineffectiveness in many aid projects. Your book posits that this is because we are not investing enough in the projects we have, while other theorists (like Easterly) would rather invest in different projects. Do you think there is a middle road in this discussion for sustainable development? And how far do you think empirical studies can be trusted when so much of developmental success is context-specific?||We need to be smart in our aid policies, using knowledge, experience, and EXPERTISE outside of economics (such as in public health). The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB, and Malaria, and GAVI are examples of aid success. We should measure and evaluate programs, but use methods that are appropriate to the circumstances. There is too much of a one-size-fits-all strategy to evaluation these days (too much on randomized trials, excluding other means of evaluation).|
|I saw you in "Commanding Heights" and learned that you advised several countries face their staggering economies. Quite amazing! Thanks for doing this AMA! Do you see need for the US and EU to face the trouble their currencies are in, especially after measures taken since 2007/8? Have you had time to dive into bitcoin and what are your thoughts?||You know, I've worked on currencies for 30 years but not yet on Bitcoin, but many (many!!!) people have been asking me about Bitcoin recently, so I need to start my own education on it. Sorry to be a laggard!|
|My name is Nikolas Tsaousis. I'm from Cyprus Professor ill follow your course on line and i have questions 1.How many times in the week the lectures it will take place and when? 2.Can we have access to the videos at any time because we are +7h EST time? 3.The interactions can happen verbally or only by text in the time of the lectures? 4.Who we are going to add in Hangout TAs to place our questions? 5.All the information's they will send to us by mail so we have the correct sides? Personal quest: On 20 of January I'm flying back to my country from USA and still up 21st GTM time 19:00 i reach Cyprus how I will be able to follow lecture 1?||Glad to hear you’ll be following! All the logistical information regarding the posting schedules, etc, will be up on the coursera course page (Link to www.coursera.org once the course goes live next Tuesday January 21. The videos will be posted weekly, every Tuesday. Once the lecture videos are online they will stay up for the duration of the course, so you can watch whenever you’d like. There will be weekly google hangout videos with myself and the course staff, where you can submit any questions; the details of how to join will be on the website. Even if you can’t join at the time, you can go back to watch the videos later. There will also be discussion boards, and I’m looking forward to answering more of your questions and having interesting discussions there! The information will all be available on the coursera website, and you will also receive email updates if you’re registered.|
|I'm fascinated by the new environmental technologies like billboards pulling drinking water from the air, or Mexico City's smog eating paint. What technology do you look at as having great potential?||Probably the single most important breakthrough in recent years has been the dramatic decline in price of photovoltaics, which have fallen by a factor of 100X since 1977. 1 Watt of PV now costs less than $1 dollar. This will make possible an enormous upscaling of solar power in many parts of the world.|
|How do you think microfinance (and microcredit in particular) can help alleviate poverty? Is that of any help to the poorest people, or only tho those slightly above that level?||Microfinance is a proven useful tool, but not a single magic solution. it can help households to start small business and to smooth income fluctuations. Some people thought it was a single panacea, but alas, it's not powerful enough for that.|
|What's your take on the Affordable Care Act? How do you think it compares to a single payer approach, as seen in Canada and the UK?||Give me single-payer ANY DAY!!! It's the lobbies that block it.|
|Why are you not devaluing education through free courses? As an economist, I would think you'd be very wary of removing price signals from any product, especially one with so much investment as a college-level course.||I am thrilled that anybody can join in my lectures through an online experience. The marginal cost of that is essentially zero, so I'm happy to be supplying that "service" to anybody that's interested.|
|Public Health advancements stand out among the successes of the Millennium Development Goals. Does the international community’s recent failure to raise the bare minimum $5 billion for the Global Fund indicate that global health will not factor prominently in the Sustainable Development Goals?||The Global Fund is still trying to close the $5 billion. I'll be speaking with several governments over the next few weeks as well to help close the deal. The name of the game is PERSISTENCE. It takes time to convince governments!!!|
|Dear Prof Sachs, thank you for doing this AMA. If I understand correctly you once stood in favour of big-package approach to development, rather than very targeted randomized trial, which due to their narrower focus, have the benefit of being easier to evaluate (they can be randomized). Where would you stand today on this debate? What do you think of the Banerjee-Duflo approach to development?||I think we have many ways to knowledge, and should limit ourselves to things that fit randomized trials. That would be an arbitrary and unnecessary barrier to tacking great challenges. That's the point I've been making, e.g. regarding public health. I'm happy to say that the evidence on public health is supporting the ambitious agenda. There is a place for RCTs (randomized controlled trials) but only one place among many methods.|
|As many borders in Africa were established in Europe in the 19th century, do you think that an AU/UN guided attempt to re-draw borders peacefully (and democratically) would increase the overall cohesive structure of most nations on the continent?||The borders are often very arbitrary, carving Africa up into 54 countries on the continent itself, plus islands. The carving has left 14 landlocked countries (I believe that's the number), plus incredibly arbitrary divisions of ethnic groups, spread across countries. Yet solving this by redrawn borders is probably not feasible. More feasible is to increase economic and social integration in Africa, so that borders matter much less. Also, more investment in good transport infrastructure!!!|
|Which country teaches sustainable development in schools? Is this an effective way to know the importance of this topics for the world? How can we do it?||When the world adopts Sustainable Development Goals in 2015, we should all work to ensure that SD and the SDGs are taught in all schools as part of the curriculum. This will be an important step in global problem solving!|
|Hi Jeffrey, I had the pleasure of taking a class from Lisa Cook at MSU, and we actually studied a paper you two wrote together. My question is how would you recommend oil rich countries in Africa harvest their resources without degrading their environment? Do you think that's even a likely achievement?||Oil development can be done effectively, with the money used for true development. It requires far more transparency of financial flows, far more policing of environmental abuses, and far more long-term policy planning. I am working with several governments to try to stop the resource curse and turn it into a resource blessing.|
|What will happen to the Millennium Villages after the MDG's expire? Will the program be sustained at its current level or are there any plans for expansion?||The MVs will be evaluated at the end of 2015, and we will make course corrections and improvements as needed in several national programs underway to scale up the MV model. So the basic notion of using community-based rural development will continue past 2015, for sure. It's working in many powerful ways, but will have even clearer evidence in 2015 on many important detailed issues.|
|Hi Professor Sachs, believe it or not I'm writing this from Nairobi! I'm a Columbia College senior, and I've been spending the past week here at the CGC getting to see some of the great work that's being done with the MVPs.||Great to hear from you. (I'm in Moscow now, myself). So good that you are visiting the CGC.|
|My question is what your goals are for this course, and what you think students stand to gain from taking it?||The course will offer an intro to the marvelous field of SD. And as I'll explain, I believe that Sustainable Development will be a central theme of our age, and especially for your generation. A world of 8-9 billion people will need to learn how to live productively and peacefully together, and at peace with the planet itself. That will be the subject of the course.|
|What would you consider to be basic steps, it even crucial steps, that those of us living in the industrialized work should pursue to lessen our drain on global resources?||We need to focus on ending the environmental damage were causing. This means, for example, converting our energy system from fossil-fuel dependence (oil, coal, and gas) to low-carbon sources, such as hydro, solar, wind, and in my view, some nuclear power (though that one, of course, is the most controversial). It also means changing agricultural patterns that deplete soils and groundwater.|
|Hi Professor, thanks for doing this. What role would you say access to family planning has on alleviating poverty at the aggregate level? Also its impact on sustainable development? Full disclosure: I am looking into doing an MSc dissertation on this topic over the summer.||Family planning is very important. Development success has almost always depended (in part) on a voluntary reduction of high fertility rates. When fertility is reduced, then each child is able to get a better start in life. Economists call this the "quality-quantity" tradeoff in number of children in a poor household. Many countries in Africa still have fertility rates even above 5 children in poor households, and the poor parents are unable to provide adequate nutrition, healthcare, and education for such a large number of children.|
|What would you consider to be the strategies to end poverty while increasing sustainable development in third world countries?||I think that the key to ending poverty and increasing sustainable development is "investment-led growth," with investments in people (health, nutrition, education, training), plus investments in infrastructure (such as low-carbon energy), plus investments in "smart" systems using information technologies.|
|Does the Millenium Development do any work within the United States to alleviate the poverty that goes unrecognized or undereported?||The Earth Institute, which I am very honored to direct at Columbia University, is beginning several projects right here in NYC. Some of them involve, for example, using a community-health-worker model to reach underserved populations. Also, scaling up public health screening in NYC schools.|
|There's been a push over the past few years to "buy American" (wares made in America). To me, this goes against Globalization (a trend that would ultimately make the world a the manufacturers and drive down prices). Whats your stance on the protectionist attitude and buying only made in America wares?||This kind of protectionism is especially damaging, and is seen by poor countries are a kind of "cheating." How are they supposed to develop if the rich-country markets are closed to them?!|
|Water is often a scarce commidity in very poor areas. Do you see any possibilities of treating salt water to make it potable and/or so that it can be used for irrigation? Also, how do you see water scarcity leading to violence in areas with little or no rain?||There are many technologies to recycle water, or desalinate, or to use mildly saline water in some cases. Yet the local specific are crucial. Water scarcity can absolutely lead to poverty, famine, and conflict. The evidence is very clear on that.|
|I know you taught Dambisa Moyo at some point. What's your take on her argument "DEAD AID" regarding Africa?||Unlike Dambisa Moyo, I believe that aid is needed and can be organized effectively and respectfully. I am very happy with the successful scale up of aid for public health in the past decade. It has saved millions of lives and helped to promote economic development.|
|What is the most extreme, ridiculous proposal you've ever seen to fix climate change that is just crazy enough to work?||It sometimes seems that the most "ridiculous" idea is that the governments actually agree to do something, and do IT. 21 years later, that's not yet happened. The goal now is for a comprehensive agreement in Paris at the 21st meeting of the signatories of the climate change agreement (COP21, so called), to take place in December 2015. Working now towards success of that.|
|What do you recommend to switch to a career in sustainable dev? Located in NYC, already in a masters program, but having trouble being useful. Thx!||The great thing about SD is that many fields can contribute -- business, law, public health, social worker, nursing, medicine, etc. So if you've got some good Masters skills, that's a great start to searching out some opps in business, government, or NGOs.|
|Prof. Sachs, what do you think is the best way to engage companies so that they contribute to the sustainable development of the countries where they work?||Each company should have a sustainability division and a code of good conduct. Companies should not create damage to the communities where they operate, or to the planet, EVEN if such behavior is "legal." Companies have responsibilities not only to shareholders but to stakeholders (communities, workers, suppliers, customers, and the planet!)|
|Are you pesimistic about the european future because of the aging population and its impact in the economy and sustainability, or not? Ricardo from Spain.||I'm optimistic about Europe (and love European culture, cities, and heritage). I'm also not against aging. :-) I believe that Europe still has the best model of social democracy, combining high productivity with social justice and environmental protection. Yet clearly some EU institutions and processes really need fixing!|
|Hi Professor, thanks for the AMA. I've spent time working with World Bank employees on several projects. While not going into specics, do you think change must be instituted through large institutions such as World Bank? Our political system is inherently disabled in many ways abroad, and it seems that economics are the key force at play and will remain the major motivator in developing a sustainable future. Thoughts?||The World Bank can play an important leadership role, and I know that the new World Bank President Jim Kim is committed to doing so. I'll do my best to help the institution fulfill its new commitment to work to end extreme poverty by 2030.|
|Prof. Sachs, it's always fascinating to read the endless retorts you and William Easterly have on the subject of development economics. Aside from what we're exposed to in numerous essays, how would you describe your relationship with him?||There are days when I'm happier and days when I'm less happy. We're colleagues and friends, but sometimes I'm simply amazed (and not happy) when he declares that "aid has failed." This is simply NOT RIGHT!!! :-)|
|What is your opinion of lifelong learning and its potential to eradicate poverty?||Lifelong learning, including online courses!!!, will be the way of the future. I'm in Moscow today, and the Deputy Prime Minister said exactly that too. Good news.|
|Dear Prof. Sachs, will you address the discussions about switching from the classical economic growth paradigm to a transition period towards a way down? thanks from Brazil.||Yes, we will talk about new growth paradigms, certainly!|
|What do you think are the most important aspects that we need to take up in the United Nations post-2015 development agenda?||The key is to establish a set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that cover all three major areas of sustainable development: economic development (including the end of poverty); social inclusion and lower inequality; and environmental protection. I'm hoping for a set of 10 concise SDGs to help guide the world during 2015-2030.|
|Dear prof. Sachs. I wonder if you consider the following case a "resource curse" Since the end of WWII, Greece (actually its elites) has received various money injections. Marshal Plan, "Jacques Delors" assistance, EEC and EU money, and €300bn on cheap loans. We have a situation with of great malfunctioning of institutions and citizens having no trust in them. We also have countless fraud cases, as well as a largely destroyed production base, since all our growth was on imports with borrowed money. Would you consider easy money as kind of a resource curse?||I love Greece, I have to say. Gift to the world. Beautiful country, wonderful culture (and food!), unbelievable history, great friends. But alas, soft governance, corruption for too long, and now a harsh crisis that Germany should do more to ease. I am a believer that Greece would recover much faster if the government puts forward a clear growth strategy to motivate export-led growth and new business startups.|
|Why subjects relating to Sustainable Development are not part of the curriculum of the primary schools, high school and universities; if we know that is toward that direction to which we have to go? We have to start from schools to change our paradigm about development. What is your opinion about this gap?||I am hoping that the world will have Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for the years 2015-2030, and that schools at ALL levels from primary to post-graduate will teach age-appropriate curricula about SD. You are right!|
|Greetings and thanks for offering what promises to be a fascinating course! My question would be: what do you see as the biggest global challenges to implementing Sustainable Development and where do you see the most inspiring innovations that look like they might overcome those challenges and where do you see the UN within this framework? Thanks.||Have a look at the website for the UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network (www.unsdsn.org) to have a look at the report to UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon (Link to unsdsn.org) That describes, I hope, a good summary of the SD challenges will be discussing in class!|
|What role do you see art play in a sustainable society?||Art plays a vital role for the health of the soul, for our wellbeing, which is a key purpose and part of Sustainable Development!|
|Your book "economics for a crowded planet" was the reason I went to study economics at university! My question is how would you go convincing corporations that are fixed on increasing the value of their stocks, to actually care about the environment?||Many companies are already on side I'm happy to say. They see the future, and also the need to protect their reputations. Many CEOs actually want to do good. We still have to get more oil companies on board, that's for sure. And we need a sound regulatory policy in any event.|
|Dr Sachs, I am a fan of your works that I have read (The End of Poverty and The Price of Civilization) and wanted to thank you for taking the time to do this and for generally forwarding developmental economics around the world. My question is: if you could instantaneously achieve any one of your development goals which would you choose and why?||I'd start with the health goals, since those are life and death. And then (or simultaneously) the hunger goal (obvious reason) and then education. Of course once people are alive and properly nourished, education becomes the KEY!|
|Dr. Jeffrey Sachs, First hand, I thank you for this opportunity to join you in learning from someone as knowledgeable as yourself, its a great honor for me. Im from Costa Rica, in 2006 I was honored with an opportunity to pursue an undergraduate degree at DePaul in business management. The first book I read was ¨The End of Poverty.¨ I used it throughout my college years for multiple papers and still consider it one of the best I have ever read. Where can this additional knowledge that I will acquire through your course take me? I am unemployed right now and wish to work for the private or public sector in matters related to finance-banking and sustainable development, can you help with this? How may we network an employment opportunity abroad or in Costa Rica? How may I assist you for future educational matters? Is there an opportunity to use my country as a hub for projects of this caliber?||Thanks for writing, and joining the class. We can all learn from Costa Rica, which has had some very innovative successes in the "green economy." In general, I believe that Sustainable Development offers job opportunities in all sectors: government, business, and civil society (NGOs). Good luck!|
|Do you see the world shifting to a more eastern centred focus? By this I mean, the BRICS and the rising economic powers of the east will rise high enough to not be so dependant on the west? This could also values, like suggested by Kishore Mahbuban.||Yes, the center of gravity of the world economy is tending to shift from the North Atlantic, where it's been for centuries, to the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Basin. The rise of China is a great game changer, together with the economic strength of Japan, Korea, Singapore, and others.|
|Professor Sachs the third world countries are in the developing rute. But they are doing this as India and China did it: sacrificing the natural resources. What are the options to new nations in order to have a real sustainable development?||One key is to use the new information and communications technologies to the maximum, and to use renewable energy -- especially solar power and wind power -- to the maximum. Technology will be crucial for sustainable leapfrogging.|
|Thank you for your dedication and persistence! And thank you for this course - I am very excited to participate in this collaborative intention. For a number of years I have been exploring what I call Transformational Global Leadership, defined as "the ability to generate fulfillment of a seemingly impossible vision for every human being.". What are your thoughts on the need for new models of leadership designed to deal with current global challenges?||Yes, we need transformational leadership, and can look at great examples in history: the fight against slavery, the fight against colonialism, the fight for civil rights, the fight against apartheid, the fight for human rights, and so on. In each case, bold, clear, powerful leadership played a key role.|
|When the government or culture in an area does not support elimination of poverty, have you seen other ways to make substantial progress, or is the government/leadership really the key to success or failure?||Government is necessary. The tools of policy (taxes, regulation, public subsidies of science, public investment) are indispensable. They are not the only things that matter, but without government, broad-based and sustained development is not really possible. Of course, governments do not need to be perfect. Thank goodness!!!|
|What is the active participation expect from third world countries which are rich with biodiversity, in achieving millennium development goals?||The countries rich in biodiversity (e.g. Costa Rica, Ecuador, Brazil, Indonesia, Kenya, Rwanda, etc.) hold that biological heritage for all the world. We should helping those countries, including with financial assistance through the Global Environment Facility (GEF) to preserve and protect the biodiversity.|
|Do you thing we can use some indigeneous vision as "Good living" to adapt them as sustainability solutions ?||Yes, the question of "good life" or "happiness" is essential. Please see the 2013 World Happiness Report (online), which discusses this approach.|
Autumn Ratke a 28-year-old American CEO of bitcoin exchange firm First Meta was found dead in her Singapore apartment on Feb. 28. Bitcoin CEO found dead in Singapore, suicide suspected 6 Mar, 2014 09:53 . Get short URL. Autumn Radtke (Photo from linkedin.com) Follow RT on . A young American woman who ran the First Meta bitcoin exchange was found dead in her Singapore apartment last week. Police are investigating the “unnatural death”. Autumn Radtke was found on the morning of February 26 after Police received an ... Autumn Radtke, the CEO of an upstart online currency exchange, died last week under mysterious circumstances at her home in Singapore. Radtke, the U.S.-born head of First Meta, was found dead by ... SINGAPORE – The CEO of a virtual currency exchange was found dead in her home in Singapore. A police spokesman said Thursday that initial investigations indicated there was no suspicion of ... The CEO of a Bitcoin exchange firm First Meta was found dead in her apartment in Singapore last week. She was 28. Local media reports suggest Autumn Radtke may have committed suicide; however, an official cause of death has not been declared. An investigation has been launched into the "unnatural" death, a police spokesman told Reuters Wednesday.. R.I.P. Autumn Radtke 28 yrs CEO of First Meta ...
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Death of CEO sends bitcoin exchange into chaos - Duration: 2 ... CTV News 7,590 views. 4:43. Is the Quadriga CX founder really dead and where is the $180 million? - Duration: 22:42. Eric Savics ... Der Galileo Bitcoin Milliardär Bitcoin Kurs unter 7.000 USD Blockchain, Türkei und Ausblick 2020 Inhaltsverzeichnis: 0:48 - Markt Update 3:35 - Die Bitco... Jack Ma, the founder and executive chairman of Alibaba Group, answered a question about the future of Bitcoin. https://www.techwalls.com/ The Great Crypto Debate: Part II One year after Bitcoin hit nearly $20,000, what can we expect from crypto in 2019? Participants: Caroline Hyde (Bloomberg News) Joe Weisenthal (Bloomberg News ... Aleks Svetski's talk at Emergence 2019 on why he thinks Blockchain is Dead and Lightning is the future!